Sabtu, 15 Oktober 2022

Angkasa Putra, Southeast Asian Aquaculture (Conditions, Challenges, Recommendations)

Angkasa Putra, Southeast Asian Aquaculture (Conditions, Challenges, Recommendations)

Foto: Dok. Pribadi

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization 2020 data, that in 2018, 46% of total fish production and 52% of total human consumption came from aquaculture. These data show how the contribution of aquaculture to human consumption reverses its role relative to capture production.
The growth of aquaculture fish production reached 48.3% of the total fish production in 2018. Among aquaculture production, Asia has dominated the world, with a proportion of 87.9% in 2018. In addition, about 59.51 million people are involved in the main industry sector. fish and seafood in the world, of which 20.53 million (34.5%) are in aquaculture and 38.98 million (65.5%) are in capture fisheries. The increase in the world's human population from 6.1 billion in 2000 to 7.3 billion in 2014 led to an increase in the world's demand for fish to maintain food security requirements.
Quoted from various sources, from 2000 to 2014, global aquaculture production continued to grow at an average rate of 7% per year or around 4.24 million metric tons/year. Asia including Southeast Asia continues to be the leading producer of aquaculture, and in 2014, accounted for about 92% of the world's total aquaculture production, of which aquaculture production from Southeast Asian countries contributed about 22%.
From 2000 to 2014, total aquaculture production in the Southeast Asia region continued to increase at an average rate of around 1,326 thousand metric tons/year or 14% per year. Southeast Asian aquaculture production if classified into cultural environments, namely; mariculture, brackish water culture, and fresh water culture.
The Future of Aquaculture is Increasingly Challenging
Looking ahead to 2022, some of the challenges in the world of aquaculture involve the type of use of feed and its raw materials, cultural production and systems, and biosecurity. Food security is also a key point for achieving higher yields and productivity, as well as a basic requirement for the import and export of fish and fishery products worldwide.
The yield from capture fisheries is also not expected to increase rapidly. So there is an emphasis placed on the aquaculture sector. Thus aquaculture is aimed at providing an increasing number of fish to meet the increasing demand in all regions.
Several conditions must be met for aquaculture to be able to achieve this expectation. That is; first, the massive expansion of aquaculture required will require an increase in production area, as well as higher production intensity. Obtaining land and water space is possible if the value of fishery products increases. Thus, aquaculture can challenge other production systems for the use of feed, soil and water needed to influence this production.
Or, second, increased efficiency in water use and increased production will reduce land requirements. The current production intensity in many Asian countries is such that there is considerable scope for increased production per unit area. However, the increased use of feed and the possible increase in the demand for water (fresh water) need to be addressed technologically.
Third, dependence on fish meal as a protein source for aquaculture feed is a growing constraint. Of the approximately 100 million tonnes of catch per year, 30 million tonnes are reduced to fish meal and oil. Aquaculture consumes 70% fish oil and 30% fish meal.
Fourth, the production of higher value aquaculture species allows investment in more intensive production systems and waste treatment. Higher value products may also be easier to market and often have greater export potential.
Southeast Asia Aquaculture Development Recommendations
On this occasion, the author intends to convey several recommendations in the development of Southeast Asian aquaculture (Association of Southeast Asia Nation/ASEAN). Among them; first, creating an organized, reported, and legal aquaculture culture. In this case, increasing the publication of data through scientific writing, accuracy, and transparency to produce good information, especially on an accountable science-based management system. Cooperation can also be carried out between institutions that focus on the field of aquaculture as well as between countries in identifying opportunities.
Second recommendation; aligning sustainable development goals in the field of aquaculture through government, industry, and public-private collaboration. Third, aligning incentives and management of domestic fisheries through a focus on the success of export species, such as cultured shrimp. Fourth, adopting more specific aquaculture environmental standards as part of the cultivation site development process. Implement comprehensive area-based management for aquaculture. Enhance improvement projects and include technology and market incentives to address disease, spatial planning, data, and monitoring. Improve hatchery capacity, feed sustainability and traceability.
Furthermore, fifth, the South-East Asian Fisheries and Aquaculture Student Association (SEAFAS) can be a new energy in collaboration with active fellow students and Southeast Asian aquaculture youth in international forums. Namely, related to the latest aquaculture discussions, especially the Southeast Asia region. So that the results can later become positive inputs for the government, industry, and decision makers in the development of Southeast Asian aquaculture.
*President of South-East Asian
Fisheries & Aquaculture Student Association

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