Foto: Dok. Syafnijal Datuk
In shrimp farming business, not just profit that the farmers looking at. Risks and challenges must also be important factors.
In this case, Soleman, a shrimp farmer in Lampung and Bengkulu explained about the challenges in the shrimp farms. From a technical point of view, of course, disease is a challenge as well as a scourge for farmers. Including in Kaur Regency - Bengkulu where he culturing shrimps, he admits that the shrimp disease caused by Myo is widespreading.
Other shrimp diseases also have spread everywhere. Leman gave an example, Bangka-Bangka Belitung has only developed shrimp culture in the last five years, but many diseases have attacked. "In fact, it is reported that AHPND (Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease) has spread in Bangka," explained Leman, his nickname.
He saw how quickly the disease spread, due to various factors. One factor, because farmers want in two to three cycles of capital must be returned. Thus, the application of high density was prioritized.
“We have to change this mindset. It can no longer be high density but in the other hand the carrying capacity of farm infrastructure does not support it. When you force high density, at first, cycles 1 to 2 are good, but cycle 3 starts to have problems,” he suggested.
Hence, he also gave a more ideal picture of ponds like India. “We have to follow the example of shrimp farming in India. The stocking density is not high, but disease-free so that production is stable and farming is sustainable and there is no need to look for new locations," he said.
In addition, he assessed the need for farmers in the farms to prevent disease by installing reservoirs and WWTPs (wastewater treatment plants). "The construction of reservoirs and WWTPs in each pond cannot be delayed any longer," he said.
Banking is Still Difficult to Access
In addition to cultivation techniques, Soleman also sees other challenges in culturing shrimps. Namely, related to banking access.
Regarding challenges related to banking, Soleman found it difficult to access when he wanted to do business in the shrimp farming sector. So, Soleman admitted, he deliberately invited his friends to invest in building a shrimp farming business. The reason is that banks have not looked at this sector to be fully funded from the start.
In fact, according to him, in general the fishpond business is quite lucrative. He suspects the cause is the effect of the bankruptcy of a number of large farms. Meanwhile, many small and medium scale farms are growing rapidly, including those of Soleman and his friends.
Soleman suspects that the collapse of large farms is not entirely due to their inability to cope with shrimp disease. He saw that many other mismanagement factors were the culprits.
Handling Licensing Issues
Apart from banking, farmers often encounter licensing problems. He gave an example, complicated matters when dealing with local governments. One of them, which is still burdensome for farmers is the matter of fulfilling the 'commitment with the local government' because it involves a number of agencies/services, starting from the Regional Secretariat, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Service, Forestry Service, Environment Agency, Manpower Service; and BPN.
Soleman said it was also the matter of fulfilling commitments with the local government that made licensing complicated because there were many offices and many desks to visit. For every service and table that is passed there must be a 'prepared' and all farmers who apply for permits are familiar with the famous term “no free lunch”.
There are no rules for how much farmers have to prepare, so the amount depends on the negotiable. It is still in the framework of issuing permits, then officials from the relevant service agencies/agencies will conduct field visits before the permits are issued. Here, of course, farmers do not just prepare boxed rice, drinking water and table fruit.
He also provides advice in managing licensing. Leman suggests that the farmers take care of the permits themselves so that it can be easier because there is no need for a third party to take care of them.
He gave an example, for his pond in North Bengkulu covering an area of 15 hectares, Leman has equipped it with spatial planning permits, location permits, location considerations permits, forest-free permits, environmental permits and SIUP permits. Then proceed with the permit to use surface water, permit for fuel stockpiling, permit for generators, WWTPs and others. Trobos/syafnijal datuk-lampung