The importance of WWTP (waste water treatment plant) in ponds, was discussed by Itang Hidayat, Aquaculture Technology and Development PT STP - JAPFA Aquaculture. He stated that shrimp farming produces solid and liquid waste during the production period. The concentration of pollutants in the effluent of shrimp ponds is not too high, but involves a large volume of water. The level of pollutant concentration depends on the length of culture, stocking density, culture system and farm construction.
He stated that the effluent from the pond waste water at harvest had a concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) < 100 ppm. However, in regular/siphon mud discharges, COD and TSS can increase up to 400 and even 1,000 ppm.
Then the nutrient retention of the feed in the shrimp pond for N was 22% and P was 10% in the shrimp biomass, which means 78% N and 90% P was wasted from the pond. "This means that the main pollutant of shrimp pond waste is nutrient pollution to the environment," said Itang in a recent discussion of Shrimp Club Indonesia (SCI) in Kaur-Seluma-Bengkulu Regency.
There are consequences if the liquid and solid waste of shrimp ponds is disposed of directly into the surrounding environment without prior processing. Namely, it can result in a shift in the dominance of the natural photoautotroph system; expansion of the siltation zone in coastal waters/river estuaries.
Then there was also the addition of a layer of anoxia rotation of the natural cycle of life and the formation of colonies of Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria in the form of biofilms that have high resistance to antibiotics, probiotics and disinfectants. "It is known that 70% of PirA & PirB Vp toxins are detected in mud and 30% in water and other substrates, such as in wild crustaceans," he continued.